Moscow (Moskva) is the capital of Russia and lies 2,200km east from Amsterdam.
Let's look at the options for travel between these 2 cities by air, train and bus...
1. Amsterdam-Moscow by Air
For most travellers, flying between the 2 cities is the only serious option due to the large distance involved. There are 5 non-stop daily flights between Amsterdam Schiphol (AMS) and Moscow Sheremetyevo Airport (SVO) with flight times of 3 hours 30 minutes.
KLM flies twice daily using Boeing 737s whilst Skyteam partner Aeroflot flies 3x daily using Airbus A320s. Return fares for non-stop flights start at around €300.
Other airlines that serve Amsterdam and Moscow indirectly are Air France (via Paris), British Airways (via London), Lufthansa (via Frankfurt), Swiss (via Zurich), LOT Polish (via Warsaw) and CSA Czech (via Prague). Cheaper fares may often be found via indirect routes.
2. Amsterdam-Moscow by Train
There used to be a direct Amsterdam-Moscow rail service - however this was stopped in December 2012. The rail journey can still be done (by the more adventurous traveller) with changes in Cologne and Warsaw:
1. Amsterdam-Cologne: Take the ICE train at 1835 from Amsterdam Central which arrives in Cologne (Köln) at 2112. Singles start at €19 (2nd class) and €39 (1st class) if booking well ahead.
2. Cologne-Warsaw: Take the Jan Kiepura EuroNight overnight train which departs Cologne (almost) daily at 2313. This arrives in Warsaw (Warszawa Centralna) at 1215 the next day. One-way prices for the EuroNight start at €43 for seat only, €59 for a couchette, €124 for a deluxe 2 bed sleeper with ensuite facilities and €184 for a single sleeper.
3. Warsaw-Moscow: Take the Polonez sleeper train service departing daily from Warsaw at 1840, which travels via Minsk, Belarus before arriving at Moskva Belorusskaja station at 1410 the following day. One-way prices start at just over €100 for a 4 bed sleeper.
The total journey time for Amsterdam-Cologne-Warsaw-Moscow will be around 42 hours if done as above. Of course you can always add stopovers into the journey.
An alternative would be to travel Amsterdam to Berlin by IC train (6 1/2 hours, 5 x daily, singles from €29) then take the 3x weekly Paris-Berlin-Moscow Express train operated by Russian Railways.
The Paris-Moscow Express departs Berlin on Thursdays, Sundays and Mondays at 0713 and arrives at Moskva Belorusskaja station at 1010 the following day, with a journey time of 25 hours. One-way fares vary between €120 and €400 depemding on cabin.
3. Amsterdam-Moscow by Coach
It is possible to do the journey by coach. Eurolines Germany sells tickets from Berlin to Moscow - this journey takes just under 48 hours with a change of bus in Minsk. A single costs around €130.
There are regular bus services from Amsterdam to Berlin with Eurolines and Flixbus.
Note that if taking the above rail or coach trips a transit visa is required for Belarus.
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